Every country aims to improve it’s agricultural productivity, even though they are not characterized as an agricultural country. The term productivity is always measured as the rate of output per unit input, and is important in any small or large scale agricultural activity. High quality production is always important for farmers to get good profit margin from their produce.
An agricultural product is said to have high productivity if the farmer receives more products than the previous year. But if the farmer input effort from the farmer is higher than usual and the production is not said to have improved, then efficiency cannot be claimed to be fulfilled. While considering agricultural production, there are various inputs and outputs in varied formats and circumstances. Also there are several factors influencing agricultural productivity.
Below are some of the inexorable factors influencing agricultural productivity under natural, social and economic conditions.
These factors arise from the nature directly. Based upon the fluctuations of these factors the productivity is also influenced. Usually these natural factors are tackled by the farmer’s expertise. This group can be explored by looking at general parameters including the local climate, soil fertility, and soil structure.
Climate-The fate of any product can be considered to be determined by the climate. While some plants thrive in the heat, some crops prefer the cold and humidity. Agriculture can become efficient when this component is combined with the farmer’s production expertise of the product.
One of the aspects of nature where there is the least chance of human interference is temperature or climate. Yes, there are special cases, like greenhouses, but they might not provide a substantial return in terms of efficiency. Furthermore, a greenhouse needs specialised equipment even though employing natural methods is less expensive. Temperature also affects the vegetative phase, which is the period of plant reproduction. The more heat the items receive throughout the vegetative phase, the more developed they become.
The elements that impact productivity in agriculture include things like the humidity requirements of the plant and the temperature requirements of the product. The product that can be grown in accordance with the climate or latitude should be chosen, according to farmer experience. It is feasible to raise tropical climate-friendly produce in the Black Sea region. The output, though, won’t be the same.
Soil-The soil is one of the primary factors affecting product quality and output. When it comes to productivity, loose soils are not ideal because they are difficult for plants to establish root in or absorb water from. Deep-rooted soils can hold trees and other plants in place even in areas with little to no rainfall.
Productivity is greatly impacted by the soil’s helpful elements for plants, such as Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Mo. Plant development and quality are both influenced by the components of the soil. When irrigation water or rainwater penetrates deeper, these factors have a more significant impact on the product. The most productive soils, known as Chernozem soils or Black Earth, are significant for this reason. But each place has a unique form of natural soil. For this reason, just as with the temperature component, the farmer should act in accordance with nature and plant the proper crop.
The farmer’s awareness or ownership of soil fertility is affected by social variables. It’s possible that society’s traditional farming practises will block the development of innovations that will benefit agriculture. Joint ownership of the land that will be planted may also have an impact on planting rates and product quality.
Land Ownership-For farmers, having their own land can be a productivity problem. On communal lands, for instance, grain output may drop if territorial integrity is compromised. Or the fact that social variables include the inability to fully implement systematically aspects like irrigation infrastructure and fertilisation resulting from land ownership.
Traditional methods-The conventional approach, often known as extensive agriculture, can have negative effects on the agricultural industry. There are several positive aspects to extensive agriculture. Depending on environmental variables, a farmer who relies solely on precipitation to maintain agriculture might not be able to supply the product with the water it requires. Socially, only traditional agriculture is practised in the environment; as a result, crops are subject to drought because irrigation technology is not used. A full disregard for modern agriculture might result in a waste of time and resources in situations like spraying and fertilising the products.
Farmers who can meet the economic conditions are more advantageous in production. Adequate equipment and a sufficient workforce will increase production as well as improve diversity.
Labour- If there is enough labour during field planting or crop harvesting, a quality product will grow and be gathered. The fast collection of items, such as fruits and vegetables that grow quickly, has an impact on the product’s quality. The soil will produce more at the same time as the product is harvested in a high-quality manner.
Trade prospect- Less demand balance also affects productivity economically. Despite the fact that they are physically quite close together, comprehensive and more efficient things are preferred if the individual without transportation problems can offer theirs in accordance with demand. However, if planting is thought to be done on accessible ground, the farmer will choose rapid growth over output effectiveness.
All of these elements influence productivity-related outcomes. Whatever the contributing factor to production may be, the most crucial component is that the farmers have a thorough understanding of their soil and their product.
OTHER PRODUCTIVITY DRIVERS
Farmers can increase their agricultural production in a variety of ways. strategies consist of:
Precision farming-Based on soil types and other data inputs, technology such as variable-rate seeding and fertilisation enables farmers to automatically seed and apply nutrients at the exact amount needed at the precise area to optimise the best yields for necessary inputs.
Soil Health-Using soil-building strategies, including cover cropping, to improve the soil’s inherent fertility and water-holding capacity in order to encourage high yields and high-quality crops
High-Quality Seed Stock-Increased yields can be attained through the use of strong seeds, seeds tailored to a certain climate, or livestock with the proper genetics for a farm’s unique requirements.
The Four R’s-Utilising the appropriate source, rate, time, and location to facilitate effective nutrition control.
Irrigation Systems-By putting in a low-energy, labor-intensive, and water-efficient irrigation system, expenditures can be reduced and yields can improve.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)-Taking proactive measures to avoid, identify and treat pest and disease outbreaks when they occur.
Infrastructure- It plays a significant role in agricultural output since it helps to cover the costs of agriculture’s fundamental needs. For instance, energy, a suitable irrigation system, access to finance to purchase crops, a good road system, and a suitable storage facility to transport and store the crops are all essential for growing any kind of crop.
The results indicate that encouraging farmers to embrace new or improved technology is necessary since doing so will assist shift farmers’ production frontier and boost productivity growth. Additionally, it is advised that raising productivity growth in any nation can be accomplished by broadening the scope of research and development, net value of output, and labour. The negative relationship between fertiliser prices and the rise of agricultural productivity in the nation should be a governmental priority.